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Our Complete range of products are Acara cichlid Fish, Altum angel fish Fish, Agassizs dwarf cichlid Fish, African butterfly cichlid Fish and Afra fish.

Acara cichlid Fish

Scientific name: Aequidens rondoni Common name: Acara cichlid Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 9 - 11 cm (3.54 - 4.33 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 6.3 - 7 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 6 - 16°N (107.14 - 285.71ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 23 - 27 °C (73.4 - 80.6°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: South America Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: aggressive to smaller Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Food and feeding Feed these fish quality flake or cichlid pellets as the staple diet but also include treats of brine shrimp, blood worms, and chopped earth worms. Origin South America; Acara cichlids are to be found in the Amazonian River Basins of Brazil. Sexing Sexing can be difficult, it is best to purchase a group of juveniles and let them pair off if you wish to breed. Breeding Sometimes Acara cichlids can be difficult to breed; one way of getting them to spawn is to simulate a rainfall by dropping the water level for a couple of days and then raising it again. They are substrate spawners so provide them with flat rocks or similar to use as spawning sites. Both parents will protect the fry which can be fed on newly hatched brine shrimp when they are free swimming. Lifespan The expected life span for Acara cichlid is 12 years. Short description As with most cichlids, these fish produce a lot of waste so good filtration with regular water changes are a must. Picture Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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Altum angel fish Fish

Scientific name: Pterophyllum altum Common name: Altum angelfish Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 10 - 15 cm (3.94 - 5.91 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 4.5 - 7 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 0 - 18°N (0 - 321.43ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 24 - 28 °C (75.2 - 82.4°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: South America Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: peaceful Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Food and feeding Altums have a voracious appetite and will accept all flake and pellet foods. Twice a week they should be offered blood worms or brine shrimp. Origin Altums are a South American cichlid, they are mostly found in Brazil, Venezuela, and Colombia. Sexing Pterophyllum altum are hard to sex, when spawning they will pair off but it is not until the eggs are laid that the females become obvious. Breeding Pterophyllum altum are very fussy fish to breed, unlike the other angel fish species, they require very soft and acidic water which is of the highest quality. They will lay their eggs on broad leaved plants or the tank glass. Once the eggs hatch, the parents will protect the fry until the next spawning. The fry should be fed on newly hatched brine shrimp until they reach a size where they can eat crushed flake. Lifespan Expected lifespan is 10 years, there are cases of Pterophyllum altum living considerably longer. Short description Altum Angel fish are not for beginners, they require a lot of care and premium tank conditions. If their needs are satisfied they will make an excellent addition to the tank. Pictures Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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Agassizs dwarf cichlid Fish

Scientific name: Apistogramma agassizii Common name: Agassiz's dwarf cichlid Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 7 - 8 cm (2.76 - 3.15 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 6 - 7 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 4 - 12°N (71.43 - 214.29ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 21 - 25 °C (69.8 - 77°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: South America Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: peaceful Usual place in the tank: Bottom levels Food Agassiz's Dwarf Cichlids are carnivorous and prefer live and frozen foods. They will accept flakes in an aquarium but should be provided a good variety of nutrition. Sexing The males have brighter, more vibrant colors and they also tend to be slightly larger than females. Males also tend to have extended, flowing fins. The females are drab in coloration, ranging from grey to a dull yellow. Breeding Eggs are laid on the ceiling surfaces of caves and are protected by the females. Males will protect the exterior territory surrounding the caves containing eggs, fry and females. One male may take on several partners at a time and have several small broods at one time. Lifespan The Agassiz's Dwarf Cichlid can live for approximately 6 years. Origin This South American Cichlid can be found in countries such as Brazil and Peru. More specifically, they are native to the Amazon, Negro and Ucayali Rivers. Short Description The Agassiz's Dwarf Cichlid is a small, peaceful fish that should be kept in small groups of about one male per three females. Provide plenty of small caves and plants for cover and spawning. Pictures Thanks to Ted! Other pictures were bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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African butterfly cichlid Fish

Scientific name: Anomalochromis thomasi Common name: African butterfly cichlid Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 4 - 5 cm (1.57 - 1.97 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 6 - 8 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 5 - 15°N (89.29 - 267.86ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 23 - 27 °C (73.4 - 80.6°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: peaceful Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Food and feeding Quality flakes and pellets should be given for the staple diet. Live and frozen foods like brine shrimp or mysis should also be given as treats. Origin Western Africa; African butterfly cichlid is to be found in Sierra Leone and Western Liberia. Sexing Males tend to be slightly larger than the females. The only other physical difference is when they are in spawning mode; the female’s belly will expand. Breeding Flat stones should be added to the tank, these will act as potential spawning sites. Large water changes will often induce the spawning; this will start when the female starts to clean several potential sites. The male will join her and choose a site, the eggs will then be laid, followed by the male fertilizing them. When hatched, the fry will be moved around the tank by the parents, feed them on Infusoria initially. After a few days they can be fed on newly hatched brine shrimp. Lifespan The expected life span for African butterfly cichlid is 3-5 years. Short description The tank should be heavily planted with rocks and wood for décor. Open swimming spaces must be provided and high water quality is a must. Picture Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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Afra fish

Scientific name: Cynotilapia afra Common name: Afra Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 9 - 12 cm (3.54 - 4.72 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 7.5 - 8.9 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 10 - 25°N (178.57 - 446.43ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 22 - 27 °C (71.6 - 80.6°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: peaceful to females Temperament toward other fish species: aggressive/territorial Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Common Names Afra or Dogtooth Cichlid Food The Afra is omnivorous. They will accept a variety of flake foods, especially one that contains spirulina. In the wild, the males will feed on algae from the rocks while the females feed on plankton in open waters. Sexing Male Afras have vertical stripes down each side and “dummy egg spots” on their anal fins that are used for breeding. Female Afras are lighter in color and lack the vertical stripes. Breeding Afras are mouthbrooders. The female carries the brood in her mouth for approximately 3 weeks before releasing them to fend for themselves. This cichlid produces smaller broods than is typical for most mouthbrooders. Lifespan Between 7 to 10 years. Origin The Afra is from Lake Malawi near Likoma Island. Description A male Afra will defend one large rock as its own territory. He feeds upon the algae growing on his rock. The female Afras hang out in open water and eat plankton. Afras often get mistook for the Pseudotropheus demasoni which are similar in both looks and size. The difference is Pseudotropheus cichlids have bicuspid teeth while Afras have a unicuspid tooth. Afras come in a variety of color combinations. Source Aquarium Fishes of the World by Dr. Herbert R. Axelrod, Dr. Warren E. Burgess, Neal Pronek, Glen S. Axelrod, David E. Boruchowitz

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Blue mbuna Fish

Scientific name: Labeotropheus fuelleborni Common name: Blue mbuna Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 13 - 18 cm (5.12 - 7.09 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 7.5 - 8.8 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 12 - 30°N (214.29 - 535.71ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 21 - 28 °C (69.8 - 82.4°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: aggressive/territorial Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Common Names Blue Mbuna or Fuelleborn’s cichlid Food Herbivorous - Blue mbunas are mostly algae eaters, scraping algae off the rocks. Spirulina, lettuce and peas are readily accepted. They will also accept live foods even though they are mostly herbivores. Sexing Males have “dummy egg spots” on their anal fins. The females tend to be slightly smaller than males. Breeding Blue Mbuna are mouthbrooding cichlids which means fertilization and hatching takes place in the female’s mouth. The young will be released after three weeks when they are free swimming and ready to take crushed flake food. Brood size is usually between 25-50 fry. Lifespan 12 years Origin Lake Malawi of the East Africa Rift Valley, where the currents are a little rough. Description There are many different color variations of this species, for example the “red top morph” and the “orange blotch morph”. Sources Aquarium Fishes of the World by Dr. Herbert R. Axelrod, Dr. Warren E. Burgess, Neal Pronek, Glen S. Axelrod, David E. BoruchowitzAquarium Fish by Dick MillsEncyclopedia of Aquarium and Pond Fish by David Alderton Pictures Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk

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Blue johanni Fish

Scientific name: Melanochromis cyaneorhabdos Common name: Blue johanni Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 7 - 8 cm (2.76 - 3.15 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 7.4 - 8.5 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 9 - 27°N (160.71 - 482.14ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 23 - 27 °C (73.4 - 80.6°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: aggressive/territorial Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Food and feeding Vegetable matter should make up the major part of the diet for Blue johanni. Supply them with spirulina flake and vegetable based flakes for the staple diet but also give them treats of meaty food like blood worms and brine shrimp. Take care not to over feed these fish as they are prone to Malawi bloat. Origin Africa, Blue johanni’s are endemic to Lake Malawi. Sexing When mature, males will be slightly larger than the females. The females will also have a lighter belly than the males and shorter pelvic fins Breeding Melanochromis cyaneorhabdos are maternal mouth brooders. When the eggs have been laid and fertilised, the female will hold them in her mouth for 21 days incubation. During this time she will hide away and when the fry are released they can be fed on crushed flake and newly hatched brine shrimp. Lifespan The expected life span for Melanochromis cyaneorhabdos is 10 years. Short description Supply plenty of hiding places in the tank by using rock work. It is best to keep 1 male with 2-3 females but keep your eyes out for a single female being harassed by the male. Pictures Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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Blue eyed tropheus Fish

Scientific name: Tropheus brichardi Common name: Blue eyed tropheus Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 10 - 12 cm (3.94 - 4.72 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 7 - 8.5 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 8 - 20°N (142.86 - 357.14ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 23 - 26 °C (73.4 - 78.8°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: aggressive to smaller Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Food and feeding Provide Blue eyed tropheus with cichlid pellets or a quality flake for the staple diet. Supplement with spirulina flake and live or frozen treats of blood worms or brine shrimp. Be careful not to over feed these fish as it can cause bloat. Origin Africa; Blue eyed tropheus are endemic to Lake Tanganyika. Sexing Sub dominant males and females will have a drab colouration, the dominant male in the tank will colour up brightly with a greenish body colour and a gold tinge to it. Breeding The male and female will shimmy to each other and swim in circles. The eggs will be deposited in the water and the female will take them into her mouth. Brooding can take up to 4 weeks and when the fry are released they can be fed on newly hatched brine shrimp or Cyclops. Lifespan The expected life span for Tropheus brichardi is 3-6 years. Short description Add plenty of rock work to the tank to provide hiding places and to allow the fish to establish territories. Tropheus brichardi gets its common name as it is believed that its eyes will turn bright blue if kept in the correct water parameters.This species should be kept with similar-sized fishes. Picture Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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Blue electric cichlid Fish

scientific name: melanochromis johannii common name: blue electric cichlid family: cichlidae usual size in fish tanks: 8 - 12 cm (3.15 - 4.72 inch) 0 14 recommended ph range for the species: 7.4 - 8.9 recommended water hardness (dgh): 10 - 25°n (178.57 - 446.43ppm) 0°c 32°f 30°c 86°f recommended temperature: 22 - 27 °c (71.6 - 80.6°f) the way how these fish reproduce: spawning where the species comes from: africa temperament to its own species: aggressive/territorial temperament toward other fish species: aggressive/territorial usual place in the tank: bottom levels feeding accepts all common fish food such as granules, tablets, vegetables, spinach. Sexing young johannii cichlids are yellowish-orange in color. The females will retain the color throughout adulthood while the males develop the shockingly blue color with uniquely patterned markings. Breeding this blue electric cichlid exhibits typical mouthbrooding behavior. The female will hold her brood in her mouth until they are old enough to fend for themselves. Lifespan 10-12 years, usually less. Origin the johannii cichlid is found in lake malawi among the rocky shoreline. Description the blue johannii cichlid is extremely aggressive. This cichlid should be kept with other aggressive fish. Sources aquarium fishes of the world by dr. Herbert r. Axelrod, dr. Warren e. Burgess, neal pronek, glen s. Axelrod, david e. Boruchowitz eyewitness handbooks: aquarium fish by dick mills pictures pictures were provided by alberto villarroya. Some pictures were bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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Blue discus fish

Scientific name: Symphysodon aequifasciata haraldi Common name: Blue discus Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 13 - 15 cm (5.12 - 5.91 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 5.5 - 7.5 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 0 - 8°N (0 - 142.86ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 27 - 30 °C (80.6 - 86°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: South America Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: peaceful Usual place in the tank: Middle levels The discus is described as the king of the aquarium. They are spherical in shape and fairly flat as compared to other cichlids. All species listed exist in different colour variants. Discus fish may be kept on their own in a species tank, or with other docile companions. They should not be kept with fish that have a pugnacious tendency or fast moving fish. The discus requires a large aquarium with efficient filtration, good water quality and frequent water changes. Discus fish generally need a high protein diet including a good quality flake/pellet, bloodworms, brine shrimp, mosquito larvae. Discus should be kept in groups of five or more for their personalities to develop.Discuses are easily bred and may take to spawning after having paired off and matured sexually. They should be provided with a spawning cone. The discus makes a devoted parent and tend to their young. The young feed off secretions from the skin of their parents.©Stokes(2005)Picture Thanks to Tom for his picture.

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Blue cobalt cichlid Fish

Scientific name: Maylandia callainos Common name: Blue cobalt cichlid Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 6 - 8 cm (2.36 - 3.15 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 7 - 8.4 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 10 - 26°N (178.57 - 464.29ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 23 - 25 °C (73.4 - 77°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: aggressive/territorial Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Origin Africa; Blue cobalt cichlids are endemic to Lake Malawi. They inhabit the rocky areas using the crevices for hiding places and potential spawning sites. Lifespan The expected life span for Maylandia callainos is 5 years. Short description Maylandia callainos are on of the more peaceful species of Malawi cichlids but plenty of rock work should still be added to the tank to provide hiding places. They will display signs of aggression at times, this is heightened when the males are in spawning mode so to help out with this make sure that the aquarium has a large enough colony to disperse the aggression and always house several females compared to the number of males. If plenty of hiding places are added via the rock work then this will give the chance for the females to hide away and escape the attention of the males when they need to. Use sand for the substrate and make sure that the water is well oxygenated. Careful positioning of the outlet pipes from the filtration system will aid this. Food and feeding Blue cobalt cichlids require a diet high in vegetable content, use quality flake and pellets for the staple diet, the addition of spirulina flake will also benefit these fish. For treats, the addition of brine shrimp and blood worms to the tank will also benefit them. Sexing Females may be slightly duller than the males with their body colouration, this can sometimes be difficult to see. Males may also display egg spots on their anal fins but females may also at times so this cannot be a guaranteed way of sexing the fish. Breeding It is best to house at least one male with three females to spread out the aggression. The female will lay her eggs on a flat rock and then scoop them into her mouth. She will then follow the male until he releases the sperm for fertilisation. The eggs spots are displayed by the male to fool the female into thinking that she is gathering more eggs, this is when the male releases the sperm and fertilisation will be completed. When brooding the eggs, the female may hide away a lot and she will not eat, care should be taken not to stress the female as she could spit out the eggs and consume them before they are due to be released. The mouth brooding will last for 3 weeks before the fry are released, they can then be fed on newly hatched brine shrimp. To gain a higher success rate it may be wise to move the fry into a growing on tank before adding them back to the colony when they are large enough not to be seen as food by the adult fish. Picture Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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Blue Acara Fish

Scientific name: Aequidens pulcher Common name: Blue acara Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 16 - 20 cm (6.3 - 7.87 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 6.5 - 8 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 4 - 25°N (71.43 - 446.43ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 18 - 23 °C (64.4 - 73.4°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Central America Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: aggressive/territorial Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Feeding Live food such as small fish, snails, earthworms. Sexing The male’s anal fin is wider than female’s. Breeding Generally, the Blue Acara is easy to keep and breed. Breeding is easy too. The female usually lays about 200 eggs which hatch in 2-3 days. Remove other fish during spawning, since parents could become very aggressive towards them. Feed newborns with artemia. Lifespan Expected lifespan of Blue acara’s is usually up to 10 years. Q&A On March 25th 2011 the following question&answer was added here due to merging aqua-fish.net/answers with related pages. How do I sex Blue Acara babies? Answer: You can’t sex these fish until they are at least 3 inches in length. The male will have extended anal and dorsal fins. The female’s fins will be much shorter. Pictures Thanks to Peter Kusy!

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Basket hap Fish

Scientific name: Mylochromis lateristriga Common name: Basket hap Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 19 - 22 cm (7.48 - 8.66 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 7.2 - 8.3 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 9 - 28°N (160.71 - 500ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 23 - 26 °C (73.4 - 78.8°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: aggressive to smaller Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Food and feeding Basket haps will accept dry foods but prefer live or frozen foods. Use a quality flake or pellets but ensure that you vary their diet with blood worms, tubifex. They will also benefit from feeding occasionally with some spirulina flake. Origin Africa; Basket hap is endemic to Lake Malawi. Sexing Males tend to be larger than the females and will display more intense colouration. Breeding Maravichromis lateristriga are mouth brooders. The female will pick up the eggs into her mouth and swim to the males “egg spot” on his fin, this is when he will fertilise them .It will take up to 3 weeks for the female to release the fry and at this stage, they can be fed on newly hatched brine shrimp or crushed flake. Lifespan The expected life span for Maravichromis lateristriga is 8-10 years. Short description Basket haps are very territorial and need a large aquarium. Add plenty of rockwork to provide hiding places but leave open swimming spaces at the front of the tank. One male is best kept with several females. Picture Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk

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Banded jewel cichlid Fish

Scientific name: Hemichromis elongatus Common name: Banded jewel cichlid Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 13 - 17 cm (5.12 - 6.69 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 7 - 8.1 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 7 - 20°N (125 - 357.14ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 22 - 25 °C (71.6 - 77°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: aggressive to smaller Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Food and feeding Banded jewel cichlids are classed as a predator fish; they can be fed on shrimps, mysis, chopped earthworms, and feeder fish. Origin Africa; Banded jewel cichlids are to be found in the waterways from Guinea to Angola. Sexing Females tend to be smaller than the males and have more rounded finnage. The males will have extended dorsal and anal fins with a concave appearance to the head. Breeding Add some flat rocks to the tank and condition the parents on meaty foods. The spawning site will be cleaned by both parents and up to 800 eggs can be laid in one batch. The eggs should hatch after 48 hours and then the brood will be moved to pre-dug pits in the substrate. After a few more days the fry should be free swimming and can be fed on newly hatched brine shrimp. Lifespan The expected life span for Hemichromis elongatus is 6-7 years. Short description Hemichromis elongatus is not for a novice fish keeper; it is one of the most aggressive cichlids available to buy and is an avid predator. Add rocks or wood to the tank to create hiding places and subdue the lighting with floating plants. Banded jewel cichlids need a lot of space, otherwise they’ll be territorial and aggressive. Pictures Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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Azureus Fish

Scientific name: Copadichromis azureus Common name: Azureus Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 15 - 18 cm (5.91 - 7.09 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 7 - 8 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 5 - 15°N (89.29 - 267.86ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 25 - 28 °C (77 - 82.4°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: aggressive to smaller Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Food and feeding Quality flakes and pellets should be given for the staple diet. For the best coloration from these fish add krill, brine shrimp, and fresh water shrimp to their diet. Origin Africa; Copadichromis azureus are to be found in Lake Malawi. Sexing Males will display an intense blue coloration; the females will have a more silvery body color. Breeding The male will dig a pit next to the rock work, blowing the sand against the rock through his gills. The female will follow the male into the spawning site and start depositing eggs. The eggs are quickly scooped into the females mouth while she is doing this the male will release the sperm which is also taken into the female’s mouth. The fry should be released after 3 weeks and can be fed on newly hatched brine shrimp. Lifespan The expected life span for Copadichromis azureus is 5-8 years. Short description Copadichromis azureus are a schooling cichlids, at least 4 males should be kept with three females. Hiding places and plenty of rock work should be added to the tank. Picture Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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Azure hap

Scientific name: Sciaenochromis fryeri Common name: Azure hap Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 10 - 13 cm (3.94 - 5.12 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 7 - 8.3 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 10 - 24°N (178.57 - 428.57ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 23 - 26 °C (73.4 - 78.8°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: peaceful Usual place in the tank: Bottom levels Food and feeding Use a quality flake or cichlid pellets for the staple diet. Vary this with treats of mysis, krill or brine shrimp. Always take care not to overfeed as these fish are prone to Malawi bloat. Origin Africa; Azure haps are endemic to Lake Malawi. Sexing Males will be slightly larger than the females and display a bright blue colouration. Females are duller with a brownish or silver body colouration. Breeding The males will dig a pit into the substrate near some rocks and the female will then deposit one egg at a time onto the actual rock. The male will flick each egg in turn with his tail at the same time fertilising them. Once fertilised, the females will scoop the eggs into her mouth and incubate them for 21-28 days. When the fry have been released they can be fed on newly hatched brine shrimp. Lifespan The expected life span for Azure hap is 10 years. Short description Add plenty of rock work to the tank to create caves and hiding places. It is best to keep one male with several females, be careful which other species are added to the tank as they will try to cross breed resulting in hybrid fish.This species may be aggressive towards other Cichlids, however not against all. Provide them with enough swimming space. Pictures Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk. Also thanks to Tamri Shavi.

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Compressed cichlid fish

Scientific name: Altolamprologus compressiceps Common name: Compressed cichlid Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 14 - 15 cm (5.51 - 5.91 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 7.8 - 8.9 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 18 - 30°N (321.43 - 535.71ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 24 - 27 °C (75.2 - 80.6°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: aggressive/territorial Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Food and feeding Compressed cichlids are highly carnivorous and will hunt around the aquarium looking for food. They will accept quality flakes but prefer live or frozen foods. Do not feed these cichlids as it contains mammalian products. Origin Africa; Compressed cichlids are found in Lake Tanganyika. Sexing Males tend to have higher bodies plus more elongated fins. The spots on their posterior tend to be more pronounced on the males. Breeding A tight cave will be used for spawning as they like to be closed in as much as possible when spawning. This can be created by using crevices in rock work or by creating a small cave from slate. The fry should appear 6 days after spawning and these can be fed on newly hatched brine shrimp. Lifespan The expected life span for Compressed cichlid is 3-5 years. Short description These cichlids are not difficult to keep; the only drawback is the slow growing of the juveniles. It can take up to 18 months for a specimen to mature. They will tolerate similar sized cichlids; there should be plenty of rock work in the tank. Pictures Thanks to Eric for pictures. Other were bought from jjphoto.dk.

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Cockatoo dwarf cichlid fish

Scientific name: Apistogramma cacatuoides Common name: Cockatoo dwarf cichlid Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 5 - 9 cm (1.97 - 3.54 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 6 - 7 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 4 - 18°N (71.43 - 321.43ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 25 - 29 °C (77 - 84.2°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: South America Temperament to its own species: peaceful to males Temperament toward other fish species: peaceful Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Food The Cockatoo Dwarf Cichlid is omnivorous and will accept a variety of foods including store bought prepared foods in flake or pellet form. Sexing The males have elaborate fins and bright colors unlike the females which have dull color and plain fins. Breeding This dwarf cichlid is an egg layer. The female will display for the male and vice versa. A small amount of approximately 50 eggs are layed at a time. The Cockatoo Dwarf Cichlid will exhibit great parenting behavior as they keep all predators at bay. Lifespan Cockatoo dwarf cichlid can live for approximately 3-5 years in captivity. Origin The Cockatoo Dwarf Cichlid can be found in the Amazon River of South America. Short Description Apistogramma cacatuoides is one of the easiest to raise of all the Apistogramma varieties. Pictures Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk. One picture was provided by Lissa. Thanks!

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Chocolate cichlid Fish

Scientific name: Hypselecara temporalis Common name: Chocolate cichlid Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 26 - 30 cm (10.24 - 11.81 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 6.4 - 7.3 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 6 - 16°N (107.14 - 285.71ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 25 - 29 °C (77 - 84.2°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: South America Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: peaceful Usual place in the tank: Bottom levels Origin South America; Chocolate cichlids are to be found in most of the Amazonian River Basins. Lifespan The expected life span for Hypselecara temporalis is 12 years. Short description Hypselecara temporalis are ones of the more peaceful cichlids that can be kept so do not put them with over aggressive tank mates. Provide them with high quality water and excellent filtration. This species is also known as Esmerald cichlid. They can live in planted tanks as they are not substrate diggers, however to prevent food particles getting trapped in the gravel and decaying it is best to use sand for the substrate. They inhabit natural slow moving waters so this should be replicated in the aquarium and add some rocks or wood to provide hiding places. If the aquarium is large enough they can be housed with other similar sized cichlids as they do not have a reputation for being aggressive and as long as they can establish their own territory in the tank there should not be any problems. They will also be fine with bottom dwellers and other similar sized species of fish that also have a peaceful disposition. Food and feeding Chocolate cichlid can be a very difficult fish to feed. The odd specimen may accept quality flake or cichlid pellets but most prefer to eat crickets or flies. lies. Once they have become established in the aquarium they will start to accept other foods including vegetable matter so try to coax them off the live foods just offering them as an occasional treat. Sexing Males will be larger than the females and should develop a nuchal hump on their forehead. Breeding Provide some flat rocks or slate for the fish to use as spawning sites. The selected area will be cleaned by both parents and when the eggs are laid, they will both protect the site. They may move the eggs to different rocks until they hatch but the eggs will be safe. When the fry have hatched and are free swimming, they can be fed on newly hatched brine shrimp. Much success has also been found by leaning slate at an angle in the breeding tank in the same way that angelfish use the slate to deposit their eggs. You may find that it may take a few batches of eggs before you get success and obtain some fry but this is a natural part of the parent fish learning to be good parents so patience is the key. Initially you should keep the lighting very dim and try not to startle the parent fish or they will eat the eggs. Once they are experienced breeders they should not startle so quickly and will feel more at ease when raising their young. Picture Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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Chitande aulonocara Fish

Scientific name: Aulonocara ethelwynnae Common name: Chitande aulonocara Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 7 - 8 cm (2.76 - 3.15 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 7 - 8.3 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 14 - 28°N (250 - 500ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 23 - 25 °C (73.4 - 77°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: peaceful Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Food and feeding Chitande aulonocara’s will enjoy meaty treats of mysis, blood worms, krill and brine shrimp. It should also be given some spirulina based flake or granules to complete the diet. Origin Africa; Chitande aulonocara is endemic to Lake Malawi. Sexing Males tend to be more colourful than the females. The females will often appear to be drab. Breeding Aulonocara ethelwynnae are mouth brooders. Once the eggs have been laid and fertilised, the female will collect them into her mouth and incubate them. During this time she may hide away and not eat. The fry should be released after 3 weeks and they can then be fed on newly hatched brine shrimp. Lifespan The expected life span for Chitande aulonocara is 10 years. Short description Plenty of rockwork should be added to the tank to provide hiding places, especially for the females. Always leave open swimming spaces at the front. It is best to keep one male to three females to reduce aggression towards one fish. Picture Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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Chiseltooth cichlid Fish

Scientific name: Cichlasoma bocourti Common name: Chiseltooth cichlid Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 18 - 20 cm (7.09 - 7.87 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 6.8 - 7.4 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 8 - 17°N (142.86 - 303.57ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 25 - 28 °C (77 - 82.4°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Central America Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: aggressive to smaller Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Origin Central America; Chiseltooth cichlids are to be found in Belize and Guatemala. Lifespan The expected life span for Cichlasoma bocourti is 6-8 years. Short description Chiseltooth cichlids are classed as semi aggressive and are quite hardy. Although they will tolerate poorer water conditions, to keep them at their best, provide them with plenty of water changes and good filtration. These fish grow extremely large and as such require a large aquarium especially if kept with other tankmates. The minimum size for the aquarium should be at least 600 litres so make sure that the filtration system used can cope with the large amount of water volume as like all large cichlids - they are high waste producers. Use sand for the substrate and add plenty of rocks or wood to provide plenty of hiding places. Make sure that if the chiseltooth cichlid is kept with other cichlids, they are of a similar size and there is plenty of room for each fish to establish its own territory or serious squabbles will occur. Food and feeding Chiseltooth cichlids will accept all foods, use a quality flake or cichlid pellets but vary the diet with meaty foods. Offer them blood worms, chopped earth worms and brine shrimp. The occasional meal of spirulina flake will also benefit these fish. Sexing Males will have elongated dorsal and anal fins. The females may have a plumper belly. Sometimes the established methods for sexing these fish can prove wrong but if you have kept these for a while you will notice that the males are more aggressive in the aquarium and extremely territorial compared to the females who tend to be more docile. Breeding Provide flat rocks to act as spawning sites, the selected site will be cleaned by both parents. It is easy to see when the breeding pair are about to spawn as their colouration will change to a deep yellow and they will start to dance around each other sometimes in a violent manner. If it gets too violent then separate the pair by means of a tank divider and try again in a few days for better results without either fish getting injured. When spawning is complete, the female will perform most of the tending but the male will occasionally take over. The eggs should hatch in 3 days and the parents will move the fry to a pit in the sand. Once the fry are free swimming they can be fed on newly hatched brine shrimp. The easiest way to get a breeding pair is to purchase a group of juveniles but remember that the fish that do not pair will need to be moved on so make sure that you are prepared for this. Pictures Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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chequerboard cichlid Fish

Scientific name: Dicrossus filamentosus Common name: Chequerboard cichlid Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 3 - 4 cm (1.18 - 1.57 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 5.6 - 6.7 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 4 - 11°N (71.43 - 196.43ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 22 - 26 °C (71.6 - 78.8°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: South America Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: peaceful Usual place in the tank: Bottom levels Food and feeding Chequerboard cichlids should accept all foods, they particularly like the sinking cichlid pellets. Use these for the staple diet but vary the meals with spirulina flake or vegetarian flakes and offer treats twice a week of live or frozen foods. Origin South America; Chequerboard cichlids are to be found in Venezuela, Colombia and Brazil. Sexing Males are slightly larger than the females and will display a brighter colouration. They also have a forked caudal fin; in the females this will be rounded. Breeding Use a planted tank for breeding purposes and the parents should be conditioned on plenty of live foods for a couple of weeks prior to being placed in the breeding tank. They will deposit their eggs on the plant leaves and both will share the parenting. Once the eggs have hatched and the fry are free swimming, they can be fed on Infusoria. Lifespan The expected life span of Dicrossus filamentosus is 3-5 years. Short description Dicrossus filamentosus are a very peaceful fish but cannot compete with more aggressive species, because of this always keep them with other peaceful species. Chequerboard cichlids tend to spend a lot of time at the bottom of the tank so provide plenty of hiding places for them and use subdued lighting.Also known as Lyretail chessboard cichlid (jjphoto.dk), Chessboard cichlid (fishbase). Pictures Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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Checkerboard cichlid Fish

Scientific name: Dicrossus maculatus Common name: Checkerboard cichlid Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 5 - 7 cm (1.97 - 2.76 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 6.2 - 7 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 5 - 16°N (89.29 - 285.71ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 21 - 26 °C (69.8 - 78.8°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: South America Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: peaceful Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Food and feeding Providing a varied diet will keep Checkerboard cichlid happy and eating well. Use a quality flake or pellets for the staple diet but they will also require plenty of live or frozen foods. Blood worms, brine shrimp and daphnia are ideal. Origin South America; Checkerboard cichlid inhabits the waterways of the Rio Orinoco and the Rio Negro. Sexing Males tend to be larger and display more colouration than the females. Breeding Broad leaves will always be chosen for spawning sites so ensure that some of these plants are added to the breeding tank. The female will stand on her head in front of the male prior to spawning and the chosen leaf will then be used to deposit the eggs on. The female will protect the brood and once the eggs have hatched the fry will move to the underside of the leaf. When they are free swimming, they can be fed on Infusoria initially and later newly hatched brine shrimp. Lifespan The expected life span for Dicrossus maculatus is 5 years. Short description Dicrossus maculatus prefer to live in soft, acidic water and add some floating plants to subdue the lighting. The rest of the tank should be well planted with hiding places but leave open swimming areas. Pictures Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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Chameleon cichlid Fish

Scientific name: Australoheros facetus Common name: Chameleon cichlid Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 20 - 26 cm (7.87 - 10.24 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 6.4 - 7 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 4 - 13°N (71.43 - 232.14ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 25 - 29 °C (77 - 84.2°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: South America Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: aggressive to smaller Usual place in the tank: Bottom levels Food and feeding Chameleon cichlid should accept all foods offered. A varied diet is essential so use quality cichlid pellets or flake but also provide live or frozen foods on a regular basis. Blood worms, brine shrimp and tubifex are ideal for Australoheros facetus. Origin South America; Chameleon cichlids are found from Southern Brazil to Argentina. Sexing Males will be larger than the females with extended finnage. Breeding Chameleon cichlids are fairly easy to breed, supply them with flat rocks in the tank to use as spawning sites and keep the water quality high. Once the eggs have hatched the parents will move the brood around the tank into various breeding pits. The fry can be fed on newly hatched brine shrimp once free swimming. Lifespan The expected life span for Chameleon cichlid is 8 years. Short description Australoheros facetus are best kept in pairs. Add bogwood and rocks to create hiding places but do not add live plants as they are constantly burrowing in the substrate and will destroy them. Pictures Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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Canara pearlspot Fish

Scientific name: Etroplus canarensis Common name: Canara pearlspot Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 10 - 13 cm (3.94 - 5.12 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 6.6 - 7.3 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 6 - 15°N (107.14 - 267.86ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 22 - 26 °C (71.6 - 78.8°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: South Asia Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: peaceful Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Food and feeding Canara pearlspots are very shy feeders and cannot compete with some species at feeding time. They will accept small amounts of brine shrimp, blood worms and daphnia but it may be difficult to get them to accept commercial flake foods. Origin South West India; Canara pearlspot is found in the waterways of South Canara. Sexing There are no visible differences between the sexes. Breeding There are no reported cases of Canara pearlspots breeding in the aquarium but in the wild they will deposit their eggs on a rock or stone and be excellent parents, raising their fry for several months. It is also believed that the fry will feed on mucus produced by the parents in a similar fashion to discus. Lifespan It is believed to have a life span of 5-8 years. Short description To replicate their natural habitat, provide flowing water in the aquarium with plenty of hiding places provided by rocks or wood. Use a high filtration system and do not keep Etroplus canarensis with aggressive species. Pictures Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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Burtons mouthbreeder Fish

Scientific name: Haplochromis burtoni Common name: Burton’s mouthbreeder Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 12 - 15 cm (4.72 - 5.91 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 8.4 - 8.9 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 12 - 18°N (214.29 - 321.43ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 20 - 25 °C (68 - 77°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: aggressive/territorial Temperament toward other fish species: aggressive/territorial Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Origin Burton’s mouthbrooder are found on the African continent where they are endemic to Lake Tanganyika. Short description Like most of the Haplochromis species, these fish prefer to live in large groups where a harem style existence takes place with the dominant males being the most brightly coloured and also the most aggressive when defending their territory. Adult specimens can be expected to reach an average length of up to 6 inches but they do require a lot of space in the aquarium so smaller tanks are not suitable. Due to their aggression they are not ideal for novice fish keepers but with some experience they can be housed safely and make a good addition for cichlid keepers. Lifespan If cared for correctly the average lifespan for Burton’s mouthbrooder is expected to be between 5-8 years. General care As mentioned above these fish need a lot of space. Despite them not being the largest cichlid the minimum sized aquarium that should be used will need to be at least 4 feet (120cm) in length and 1 foot - 18 inches wide (30-45cm). Rock formations should be added to the rear of the aquarium with plenty of gaps to allow the fish to swim through. Sand should be used for the substrate and plants can be added if required which should not be nibbled on by these fish. All cichlids are high waste producers so use a filtration system that is rated for the water volume of the aquarium and back this up with regular water changes of at least 10% weekly. Always allow for open swimming spaces at the front of the aquarium as Burton’s mouthbrooder are very active and will need lots of space. It is always best to keep one male with several females, dominant males will fight to the death if they do not have the space to create their own territories. Feeding Burton’s mouthbrooders will accept cichlid pellets or a quality flake for the staple diet but they will require meaty foods to vary their diet and strengthen their immune system. In the wild they feed on crustaceans so chopped cockles or mussels are ideal. Chopped earthworms can also be offered as well as brine shrimp or blood worms. Sexing Mature males display a much brighter colouration when compared to mature females. Breeding As the name suggests they are a mouth brooding species. Dominant males will dig a pit in the substrate and entice the females over by displaying to them with quivering motions and flaring their gills. At this time any other male would be chased off with extreme aggression. One a female is receptive she will swim to the pit and deposit her eggs, an average batch would be 15-20 eggs with each spawning. The female will then attempt to pick up the eggs and at the same time be fooled by the egg spots on the anal fin of the male allowing him to fertilise the eggs in the female’s mouth. During incubation the female will hide away on the rockwork and not feed, during this period she should not be stressed or she will release the eggs early. Over a three week period the eggs will hatch and the female will contain the fry in her mouth until they are large enough to care for themselves. At any sign of danger the female will scoop the fry back into her mouth until the danger has passed. Once free swimming the fry can be fed on newly hatched brine shrimp or infusoria until they are large enough to accept the same diet as the parent fish.

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Bumble bee Fish

Scientific name: Pseudotropheus crabro Common name: Bumble bee Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 8 - 10 cm (3.15 - 3.94 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 7.5 - 8 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 12 - 25°N (214.29 - 446.43ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 24 - 29 °C (75.2 - 84.2°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: aggressive/territorial Temperament toward other fish species: aggressive/territorial Usual place in the tank: Bottom levels Origin This cichlid resides in caves in Lake Malawi which is located in East Africa in the rift valley. Lifespan Approximately 10 years. Description The bumble bee cichlid is also known as the hornet cichlid. This is a highly aggressive fish with a bad reputation. It is not a good fish for beginners because of its highly volatile temper. Males are extremely aggressive towards other males and it has even been known for the males to attack females in the aquarium with lethal results. For experienced keepers though they are a great addition to the aquarium due to their spectacular markings which earns them their common names, the markings are used as an advertisement to other fish to announce the fact that they are excellent cleaners. In the wild they reside in caves with the bagrus catfish which is a very large catfish. This catfish allow the bumble bee cichlids to live near them and in return these cichlids pick parasites off the skin of the catfish. When the catfish lay their eggs the bumble bee cichlid changes colours for camouflage and they sneak around eating the catfish eggs. When they are done devouring all they can they quickly change back into their usual colouration and go about their business. To keep the aggression down they will require space in the aquarium, a minimum of at least 75 gallons for a group which should consist of one male with several females. The reason for this is very simple, it shares the attention of the male around the females and gives the females respite in between rather than one female being constantly harassed. They can be kept with other mbuna but try to avoid keeping different species with similar markings. Food In the wild the bumble bee cichlid feeds on parasites and catfish eggs. In the aquarium they will accept a wide variety of foods such as flakes, algae wafers, live, dried and frozen foods. Sexing The juveniles have the yellow and black vertical striping that give them the common name “bumble bee”. As they get older the males turn nearly black with a deepening in color when angry or breeding. Breeding The bumble bee cichlid is a mouthbrooding cichlid which is typical of cichlids endemic to Lake Malawi of the East African Rift Valley. The female will hold her brood for approximately 18-21 days before releasing them to care for themselves. As mentioned above one male should be kept with several females for breeding purposes as well as general keeping, if you are purchasing a group of juveniles then any sub dominant males need to be removed or the dominant male will attack them with lethal results. The amount of eggs laid by the female with each spawn does not run into high figures averaging out at approx 50 per clutch, out of this number 25 to 30 fry is a good success rate. The male darkens intensely during the spawning process which also has the effect of intensifying his egg spots which the female will mistake for eggs. This in turn aids the fertilisation process as she will allow the males sperm into her mouth at this point. Pictures Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk

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Brown julie Fish

Scientific name: Julidochromis dickfeldi Common name: Brown julie Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 9 - 10 cm (3.54 - 3.94 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 7.8 - 8.9 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 18 - 30°N (321.43 - 535.71ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 24 - 27 °C (75.2 - 80.6°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: peaceful Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Food and feeding Brown julie’s tend to hover at the bottom of the tank during feeding, they will accept quality flakes, sinking pellets and blood worms. The adults also relish a treat of cyclopeeze when added to the tank. Origin Africa; this species is found in Lake Tanganyika. Sexing It is believed that the females are slightly larger than the males; this has yet to be proven. Breeding Brown julie’s need caves and rock work in the tank to provide spawning sites, they will move the substrate in the caves ready for the eggs. The eggs will be laid inside the cave, usually underneath the top. This sometimes makes it hard to view the eggs but the fish will guard them very well, attacking any would be predators. The fry are very small when they hatch so should be fed on newly hatched brine shrimp or Infusoria. As they fish develop, the juveniles will also play their part in looking after future batches of eggs. Lifespan The expected life span for Julidochromis dickfeldi is 7 years. Short description Julidochromis dickfeldi do not require a large tank, once they have established their territories, they rarely venture away from them. It is best to keep these as a species tank. Q&A On March 25th 2011 the following question was added here due to merging aqua-fish.net/answers with related pages.Which fish are compatible with Julidochromis Dickfeldi?Answer: These fish are African cichlids, they are found in Lake Tanganyika so should be kept with cichlids from the same lake. Peacocks are a good example. Picture Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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Brichards slender cichlid Fish

Scientific name: Teleogramma brichardi Common name: Brichard’s slender cichlid Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 11 - 15 cm (4.33 - 5.91 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 6 - 7 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 7 - 11°N (125 - 196.43ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 20 - 23 °C (68 - 73.4°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: peaceful Usual place in the tank: Top levels Food and feeding Brichard’s slender cichlids will relish blood worms and brine shrimp. Offer them quality flake as well but it is not required for the staple diet. They have been known to catch small fish for food as well. Origin Africa; Brichard’s slender cichlids are to be found in the rapids of Zaire. Sexing When in spawning mode, the female will display a reddish belly. The males will stay a uniform grey. Breeding The Pairing bond of Teleogramma brichardi is not a strong one; they may change pairs through their life time. The fish are cave spawners, creamy white eggs will be laid on the roof of the cave. The eggs should hatch in 3-4 days and a few days later, the fry should be free swimming. They can be fed on newly hatched brine shrimp. Lifespan The expected life span for Teleogramma brichardi is 5-8 years. Short description As expected from fish that originate from the rapids in rivers, Brichard’s slender cichlids will require well oxygenated water with plenty of current. Hiding places should also be included in the set up. Pictures Thanks to Ted!

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Brichards chalinochromis Fish

Scientific name: Chalinochromis brichardi Common name: Brichard’s chalinochromis Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 10 - 12 cm (3.94 - 4.72 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 8 - 8.9 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 9 - 19°N (160.71 - 339.29ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 24 - 27 °C (75.2 - 80.6°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: aggressive/territorial Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Origin Brichard’s chalinochromis originate from Lake Tanganyika where they inhabit the rocky outcrops. Short description Brichard’s chalinochromis are quite a rare addition to the aquarium hobby and should only be cared for by keepers with some experience of keeping aggressive cichlids. Another unusual trat with these fish is the dramatic change of colouration when they mature from juveniles to adult fish. As juveniles they display barring all along their body but this disappears as they mature only leaving the black barring around the head hence their common name of the masked brichardi. Adult specimens average a length of round 3.5 inches but there are cases where they have grown slightly larger. They are extremely aggressive towards other tank mates if allowed to be, they should only be housed with other species of fish that can handle themselves, it is also advised to only house one male in the aquarium with a group of females. Lifespan The expected lifespan for Brichard’s chalinochromis is 5-8 years if cared for correctly. General care It is wise to give these fish a lot of space, despite their smaller size they do need to establish territories. They can be housed in a 30 gallon aquarium but giving them space in a 50 gallon aquarium could allow for more hiding places and larger areas for territories. Add rockwork to the rear of the aquarium and it is also advised to use sand for the substrate to make them feel at home. Brichard’s chalinochromis prefer a medium water flow so place the outlet nozzles from the filter carefully and try to avoid still spots in the rockwork if possible. The temperature should be set at 26°C (79°F), and keep the pH range between 8.0-8.9. Regular water changes should be performed, at least 10% weekly and always keep a close eye on the fish to make sure that individual specimens are not being bullied or harassed. Feeding Brichard’s chalinochromis have a ravenous appetite and will accept most foods offered. They will readily accept quality commercial flake food or small cichlid pellets but this should be varied by offering live or frozen foods. If offering blood worms these should be fed sparingly or it could lead to digestive problems. Sexing There is no reliable way of sexing these fish for amateur fishkeepers, they can be vented by expert keepers but even this can lead to errors at times. Breeding Brichard’s chalinochromis are secretive spawners and the females will often deposit their eggs in the rockwork without the keeper being aware. The females tend to guard the eggs while the male may hold a spot a distance away from the nest but he will constantly monitor the spawning site and occasionally swim over to make sure all is well. The parent fish are extremely defensive of the fry so it may be best to breed these fish in a separate breeding tank to avoid major conflicts with other tank mates. The fry are well defended for up to 4 weeks even from previous fry that have have been spawned from the same parent fish but after this time the fry will be released to wander around the tank and mix with other occupants of the tank.

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Brevis shelldweller Fish

Scientific name: Neolamprologus brevis Common name: Brevis shelldweller Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 6 - 8 cm (2.36 - 3.15 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 7.5 - 8.5 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 10 - 20°N (178.57 - 357.14ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 23 - 27 °C (73.4 - 80.6°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: aggressive/territorial Temperament toward other fish species: aggressive/territorial Usual place in the tank: Bottom levels Diet: Carnivore, micropredator. Brevis shelldweller can be kept in small tanks, even though I usually recommend to create enough empty space for swimming, because you never know. This species is aggressive, especially a male towards another male, so it’s always better to keep more females with one male. Don’t forget about shells, which are required for their successful breeding. Their basic colour is a golden mixed with beige. Q&A The following question was moved here from aqua-fish.net/answers due to merging on March 25th 2011. Neolamprologus brevis and what other fish are shell dwellers? Answer: There are several shell dwelling species in the African Lake Tanganyika. Lamprologus ocellatus Lamprologus brevis Lamprologus multifasciatus Lamprologus caudopunctatus Lamprologus meeli Lamprologus kungweensis Pictures Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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Bolivian ram Fish

Scientific name: Mikrogeophagus altispinosus Common name: Bolivian ram Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 6 - 8 cm (2.36 - 3.15 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 6.4 - 7.5 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 4 - 13°N (71.43 - 232.14ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 22 - 27 °C (71.6 - 80.6°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: South America Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: peaceful Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Food and feeding Bolivian rams are classed as omnivores so will accept all foods. For the staple diet, provide quality flake or pellets and spirulina wafers. Twice a week give them treats in the form of brine shrimp and blood worms. Origin South America; the Bolivian Ram can be found in the waterways of Bolivia and Brazil. Sexing Males tend to be slightly larger than the females and will also display extended dorsal and caudal fins. The male should also display more colouration than the female. Breeding Provide some flat rocks in the tank to act as spawning sites. Both fish will clean the selected rock prior to spawning and there will usually be 100-200 eggs laid on the site. The female will tend the eggs while the male defends the territory and after a few days the fry should hatch. The can be fed on newly hatched brine shrimp initially. Lifespan The expected life span for Mikrogeophagus altispinosus is 2-4 years. Short description Mikrogeophagus altispinosus demand high water quality and a mature tank to be placed in. They are at their best in planted tanks and can be kept with other peaceful cichlids. Pictures Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk. Also thanks to Jonathon Whipple.

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Fenestratus Fish

Scientific name: Amphilophus robertsoni Common name: False firemouth cichlid Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 16 - 19 cm (6.3 - 7.48 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 7.2 - 8 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 10 - 18°N (178.57 - 321.43ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 23 - 27 °C (73.4 - 80.6°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Central America Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: peaceful Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Origin The False firemouth cichlid can be found in Central America, namely Mexico where it inhabits the local rivers and streams. Short description The False firemouth cichlid can be found under a number of different common names such as the Turquoise cichlid and Robertson’s cichlid. They are quite peaceful compared to some of the other similar sized cichlids but they can become very territorial at spawning times. Their Latin name is Amphilophus robertsoni and they belong to the order of perciformes. Adult specimens can reach a size of up to 9 inches so they do require a larger aquarium to keep them successfully so bear this in mind if you are considering housing them. The main body colouration that they display contains blue, yellow and purple pigments, as they mature they develop dark vertical bars. The False firemouth cichlid is not readily available in most aquatic stores so expect to pay higher prices for this fish, it is surprising that they are not more popular with their vivid markings but this could be due to the difficulty experienced in breeding these in captivity. They are classed as eartheaters due to their habit of feeding from the bottom of the aquarium, sifting through the substrate for morsels. Lifespan If cared for correctly the average lifespan for the False firemouth cichlid is approximately 9 years. General care These fish can be housed with other cichlids of a similar peaceful nature but ensure that all of the fish have plenty of swimming space. The minimum size of aquarium should be at least 30 gallons for a small number of specimens but if keeping more fish then increase the aquarium size accordingly. They prefer to inhabit the middle to lower levels especially at feeding time so keeping them with species that prefer the higher levels will give them more space. The water temperature should range between 23-27°C (73-81°F) and the pH should range between 7.2-8.0. As expected these cichlids are high waste producers so ensure that the filtration system is rated for the water volume and back this up with regular water changes of at least 10% weekly. Sand should be used for the substrate and add rocks or wood to provide hiding places, this will make the fish feel more secure. Plants can be added to the aquarium but the False firemouth cichlid may uproot some of these while they are searching for food in the substrate. Feeding The False firemouth cichlid is classed as an omnivorous species so should accept all foods offered. Use a commercial flake or pellet for the staple diet but this should be varied with meals consisting of meaty foods such as brine shrimp, chopped earthworms or bloodworms. Extra vegetable matter can be supplied by offering blanched peas, spirulina flake or nori. Sexing Mature males tend to grow larger compared to mature females and they will display a brighter colouration. Breeding The False firemouth cichlid is a difficult species to breed in the aquarium however it has been achieved on a few occasions. They are a substrate spawner and both parents will show parental care to the brood. The main problems with a breeding project involves acquiring a breeding pair as aggression will be shown by more than one male housed in the same aquarium. If you are lucky enough to obtain a breeding pair then a separate breeding tank is advised to control any form of aggression. The eggs will be deposited in the substrate and after 48 hours they should hatch but the fry will not require feeding until they are free swimming as they will consume their yolk sacs initially. At this stage they can be fed on newly hatched brine shrimp. Pictures Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk

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Fairy cichlid Fish

Scientific name: Neolamprologus brichardi Common name: Fairy cichlid Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 9 - 10 cm (3.54 - 3.94 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 7.6 - 8.9 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 12 - 18°N (214.29 - 321.43ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 23 - 25 °C (73.4 - 77°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: peaceful Usual place in the tank: Bottom levels Known synonyms: Lamprologus elongatus Neolamprologus elongatus Lamprologus savoryi elongatus Lamprologus brichardi Neolamprologus brichardi Food The Brichardi Cichlid is an omnivore and will feed on crustaceans, invertebrates and plankton in the wild. In an aquarium, this cichlid will accept a variety of flakes, dried and live foods. Sexing The male Fairy Cichlids are slightly larger with longer anal, dorsal and caudal fins. The females are a little bit smaller and much more timid. Breeding Fairy Cichlids form monogamous pairs that stay partnered throughout their entire lives. They are substrate spawners and extremely great parents. Once the fry absorb their yolk sacs they can be fed newly hatched brine shrimp and finely crushed flakes. Lifespan This cichlid will live for approximately 8-10 years. Origin These cichlids come from the northern area of Lake Tanganyika of Africa. Description These fish are known for their unique breeding habits. They are the only fish in Africa known to share parenting responsibilities as a school of fish. Each adult and juvenile will contribute to protecting eggs, fry and spawning parents. These cichlids have such large schools that up to 100, 000 of these fish will live together in a small area of water. This is the main reason why they do best in a species tank. Picture Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk

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Electric yellow cichlid Fish

Scientific name: Labidochromis caeruleus Common name: Electric yellow cichlid Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 8 - 10 cm (3.15 - 3.94 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 7 - 8.5 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 10 - 30°N (178.57 - 535.71ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 22 - 28 °C (71.6 - 82.4°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: peaceful Usual place in the tank: Bottom levels Feeding For a healthy diet, Electric yellow cichlid will need both meaty food and greens. For greens, give them algae and vegetable flakes and pellets (those containing spirulina are great), from time to time spinach, lettuce, peas, and for meat use life or frozen bloodworms, brine shrimps and some larvae. Don’t overfeed, otherwise they’ll get overweight and the water quality will drop too. Enough food should be the amount they eat within 5 minutes if you feed them once a day or 3 minutes if you feed them twice a day. Origin In nature, they can be found in the Lake Malawi between the islands of Charo and Mbowe where they live either in deeper rocky waters, or in shallow waters among high water plants like the Vallisneria's. Sexing The male and the female are very similar and the submissive males are even more so. The easiest is to identify a dominant male. He’ll have much brighter yellow colouration, the anal and pelvic fins will be jet-black and longer than females’. The male’s dorsal fin is black too, but with a yellow edge. Older males can develop some dirty-looking colouration on their faces. Females on the other hand should have yellow dorsal (sometimes it is only lighter black), anal and pelvic fins, and they are smaller. The subdominant males are more tricky. Their anal and pelvic fins can vary from light black to yellow, so sometimes it is very hard to tell them apart from females, but they still should be bigger than females. Breeding Electric yellow cichlid is a mouthbrooder and it is quite normal for them to breed in home aquariums. They start breeding when they are about 5 or 6 cm (1.97 - 2.36 inch) long. At this size they should be about 6 months old, which is the age when they are sexually mature. Spawning occurred mostly after the hobbyist lowered the water level for a day and then added clean water. Firstly a male will choose a spot, mostly some nice flat stone, then the female lays her eggs there, the male will fertilize them and after that the female will collect them into her mouth. They repeat this process few times and then the female will hide for about 3 weeks. Young inexperienced females have about 10 fry, older ones can have 30. If the female has a good hiding place, she can be kept in the main tank during the incubation and the fry should be safe with their parents even after they are released. In fact if you try to remove the female after she releases her young, she may become so stressed, she eats her babies. The fry can be fed with brine shrimps or crushed flakes after their yolk is absorbed. Lifespan Under right conditions they can live up to 10 years. Tank requirements This cichlid needs at least 70 gallon or 250 litre per one male and few females. The water should be hard, slightly alkaline and always clean to ensure the proper health of fish. The decoration should simulate their natural habitat, so divide your tank into two parts. One should be overgrown with plants, Vallisneria is perfect and it is quite common in aquarium trade too, just secure the roots. Leave the second part open for free swimming space with rocks and caves at the bottom. The best substrate for an Electric yellow cichlid is sand or fine gravel, since they like to dig in it. Tank mates This is one of the more peaceful cichlids, but it is still semi-aggressive and territorial, especially toward similar coloured and shaped fish, as well as toward males from the same specie. It is because they are seen as competition for food and females. But even if they fight, serious injuries are only rare, especially if they have enough room. In small or overcrowded tanks the fights can get more dangerous. Females on the other hand will be safe and can be safely kept in one tank with a male. In fact the best is to keep 3 or more females per one male, because males will spend most of their time chasing them. Best tank mates are larger fish which will not be seen as competition, nor as food. Short description In the wild this “yellow” cichlid is normally light blue with a little bit of white. This strain of the Labidochromis caeruleus was the “rare” colour variation when it was first discovered. Due to their ease of breeding in the aquarium industry, the Electric Yellow Cichlid is one that is readily available to aquarists everywhere while the light blue-white variety has been forgotten. This fish has another common names: Blue streak hap, Labidochromis white, Labidochromis yellow, Yellow prince. Please, check the Randy’s comment below for the temperament/compatibility experience. Pictures Pictures were provided by Alberto Villarroya. Thanks! Questions/Answers On March 23th 2012 the below-shown questions and answers were added here due to merging aqua-fish.net/answers with related pages. Which fish are compatible with the electric yellow cichlids? Answer: The electric yellow cichlids is an African cichlid, it should be kept in a Malawi set up with other Malawi cichlids. How can I tell if my electric yellows are breeding? Answer: The male yellow will show a more aggressive nature often chasing the female. These fish are mouth brooders so you will often miss out on the actual laying of the eggs.

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Electric blue hap Fish

Scientific name: Sciaenochromis ahli Common name: Electric blue hap Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 17 - 20 cm (6.69 - 7.87 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 7.5 - 8.5 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 9 - 19°N (160.71 - 339.29ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 25 - 28 °C (77 - 82.4°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: aggressive/territorial Temperament toward other fish species: aggressive/territorial Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Food and feeding Quality flake, spirulina flake and pellets can be given to Electric blue hap. Be wary of giving them live worms or live brine shrimp, this can lead to bloat which could eventually kill the fish. Origin Africa; Electric blue haps originate from Lake Malawi. Sexing As the fish matures, the males will display an intense blue coloration, the females will remain a drab grey. Breeding The eggs will be fertilized prior to the female collecting them in her mouth. The mouth brooding should last for 2 weeks and in this time she may hide away and not eat. Once the fry are released they can be fed on crushed flake. Lifespan The expected life span for Sciaenochromis ahli is 11 years. Short description Sciaenochromis ahli need lots of swimming spaces, if rockwork is in the tank, they may stay away from it as they are a non-Mbuna species. A single male kept with 2-3 females is ideal, if two males are in the tank, a lot of aggression will ensue. Q&A The next answers were moved here from aqua-fish.net/answers on March 25th 2011 due to merging. Which fish are compatible with Blue Haps? Answer: Blue haps can be aggressive so they should be housed with their own species in the tank. If you do wish to mix then peaceful Mbuna are worth a try. Always keep a male Blue Hap with several females. What size are Hap Ahli fry? Answer: The fry of these fish are very small initially, probably only 1-2mm. The Hap is a mouth brooder so the fry will not start to grow dramatically until the mother has released them. Picture Thanks to Marwin!

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East coast gray Fish

Scientific name: Ptychochromis grandidieri Common name: East coast gray Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 21 - 24 cm (8.27 - 9.45 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 5.5 - 7 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 3 - 15°N (53.57 - 267.86ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 21 - 26 °C (69.8 - 78.8°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: peaceful Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Food and feeding A very easy fish to feed, East coast grays will accept quality flake and pellets. Try to give them pellets with a high vegetable content. Origin Africa; East coast gray is endemic to Madagascar. Sexing There are no visible differences between the sexes. Breeding Ptychochromis grandidieri are substrate spawners; supply them with flat rocks or slate to act as spawning sites. The chosen site will be cleaned by the parents prior to the eggs being laid. Once laid, the eggs will be guarded by the parents and they should hatch after four days. A few days later the fry will be free swimming and are capable of digesting newly hatched brine shrimp. They are slow growers and take months to mature. Lifespan The expected life span for Ptychochromis grandidieri is 5-8 years. Short description East coast grays are very prone to Ich, because of this; many keepers add salt to their water. They are classed as semi-aggressive but they are a good species for someone new to cichlid keeping. Picture Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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Earth eater Fish

Scientific name: Satanoperca jurupari Common name: Earth eater Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 20 - 25 cm (7.87 - 9.84 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 6 - 7.8 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 4 - 18°N (71.43 - 321.43ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 23 - 28 °C (73.4 - 82.4°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: South America Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: peaceful Usual place in the tank: Bottom levels Food The Earth Eater Cichlid is a carnivorous fish. They will accept live or frozen foods such as brine shrimp . Sexing The male and female will look very similar except the female will be slightly plumper when matured. Breeding The Earth Eater is a mouthbrooding cichlid that yields between 150-400 eggs in each brood. The female will hold her clutch in her mouth for 2-3 weeks or until she feels they are ready to fend for themselves. Lifespan Satanoperca jurupari will live for 10 years but can possibly live more if it is well cared for. Origin This cichlid is found in rivers throughout South America. Short Description The Earth Eater Fish earned its common name by picking up sand and rocks in search of food. When feeding this fish in the aquarium, be sure to use sinking morsels of food in order to allow them to carry on with their natural behavior. Picture Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk. Another one was provided by Marvin.

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Dwarf tanganyikan cichlid Fish

Scientific name: Tropheus duboisi Common name: Dwarf tanganyikan cichlid Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 10 - 12 cm (3.94 - 4.72 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 8.5 - 8.9 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 10 - 16°N (178.57 - 285.71ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 24 - 26 °C (75.2 - 78.8°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: aggressive/territorial Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Origin The Dwarf Tanganyikan cichlid is endemic to Lake Tanganyika where it occupies the deeper water. Short description Compared to other species of cichlids that occupy Lake Tanganyika, these are not the most aggressive but they will squabble with other specimens of their own kind. They do not mature to a great adult size, average length for adults being just under 5 inches but they do look impressive as a group in the aquarium. As juveniles there body colouration is black which is broken by spots or either white or a yellow colouration, as they mature there colouration changes to a dark blue base which is broken by a yellow or white bar which runs vertically down the main body. Due to their more peaceful disposition they do make a good species for novice keepers new to keeping African cichlids. You may also hear of these fish referred to as the White spotted cichlid due to their juvenile colouration. Lifespan If cared for correctly the Dwarf Tanganyikan cichlid should have an average lifespan of between 5-8 years but there are cases of these fish living even longer. General care The minimum sized aquarium that should be used for housing the Dwarf Tanganyikan cichlid should be at least 4 feet in length and one foot wide ( 120 cm x 30 cm).This is fine for a small group but larger groups will require larger aquariums. Sand should be used for the substrate and the decor is a matter of choice but to keep in line with the lake adding some rocks in the background to provide hiding places works well. The temperature range should be set between 24-26°C (76-79°F) and the pH should range between 8.5-8.9. These fish will require a fully cycled aquarium with stable water parameters and they also demand high water quality so regular water changes are a must as is using a filtration that can cope with high waste producers such as these. High oxygen levels in the water column are required so aim the outlet nozzle from the filters towards the water surface to increase gaseous exchange. Feeding All foods offered should be accepted by the Dwarf Tanganyikan cichlid but they will require extra vegetable matter in their diet. Use cichlid pellets or a quality flake for the staple diet but this should be varied with treats of live or frozen foods such as brine shrimp or bloodworms. For extra vegetable matter include blanched peas, spirulina flake or chopped cucumber. Sexing Not an easy species of fish to sex, it is probably best to purchase a small group and allow them to pair naturally. Breeding The Dwarf Tanganyikan cichlid are a maternal mouthbrooder, they are quite easy to breed once you have obtained some pairs. It is best to purchase as a small group and allow them to pair as they mature. It is best to keep a harem of females with one male in the breeding tank as two males will be extremely aggressive towards each other. When spawning the eggs are deposited over rocky areas and once the fertilised the female will scoop them into her mouth for incubation. It can take up to 30 days for the fry to be released so during this time it is very important to keep the female stress free, premature release of the fry will incur losses. Once released the fry can be fed on newly hatched brine shrimp or infusoria until they are large enough to handle the same foods as the parent fish. Pictures Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk

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Dwarf flag cichlid Fish

Scientific name: Laetacara curviceps Common name: Dwarf flag cichlid Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 4 - 5 cm (1.57 - 1.97 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 6 - 7.8 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 0 - 18°N (0 - 321.43ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 22 - 28 °C (71.6 - 82.4°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: South America Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: peaceful Usual place in the tank: Bottom levels Origin Dwarf flag cichlids originate from the Amazon tributaries in South America. Lifespan Expected lifespan is 2-4 years. Short description The flag cichlid can be found under many common names such as the Flag acara, Sheepshead acara, Smiling acara but they are all the same fish so to make sure you have the correct specimens it is always best to research them through their Latin classification name. Tank bred specimens are ideal for beginners to cichlid keeping, even the wild specimens can be kept by beginners but will require a bit more care as regards providing the correct conditions and pristine water conditions. The flag cichlid is ideal for adding to a planted aquarium and are suitable to be housed with other species of a similar size that require similar water parameters, do not keep these with small tank mates or the flag cichlids may see these as a source of food. Individual specimens may display different levels of colouration and different markings, each fish is unique in its markings giving them their own identity. The flag cichlids are a peaceful species except when in spawning mode, like all species of fish they will become territorial when attempting to breed so be aware of this and pairs may need to be moved to a breeding tank if too much aggression is being shown to other tank mates. They will not damage plants in the aquarium and are sometimes added to community tanks. Food and feeding Dwarf flag cichlids do best on live or frozen foods. Earthworms, chopped finely, blood worms, brine shrimp, and tubifex will bring out their full colouration. They are classed as omnivorous so will accept a wide range of foods, offering a quality flake or small pellet food alongside the live or frozen foods will broaden their diet ensuring they receive all the nutritional requirements that they need. Sexing The male is usually more brightly coloured with extended dorsal and anal fins. Breeding Laetacara curviceps will breed at a very young age. The pair should be conditioned on live foods and the male will then commence to clean a spawning site, flat rocks or a section of tank glass is the usual places. After a few days of spawning the eggs should hatch but the fry will not be free swimmers until 5-7 days later. The parents will share their duties of protecting the fry and sometimes will move them in their mouths around the tank. The fry should be fed newly hatched brine shrimp or crushed flake initially. To get the best results it is wise to breed these fish using a separate breeding tank, this will give the parents more time to concentrate on the spawning process rather than chasing away tank mates who may swim into the breeding area. Pictures Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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Doritys rainbowfish

Scientific name: Glossolepis dorityi Common name: Dority’s rainbowfish Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 9 - 10 cm (3.54 - 3.94 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 6.5 - 7.8 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 12 - 16°N (214.29 - 285.71ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 24 - 27 °C (75.2 - 80.6°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Oceania Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: peaceful Usual place in the tank: Top levels Food and feeding Dority’s rainbowfish will accept all foods. Quality flake food should be used for the staple diet, live or frozen foods should be offered as treats. Brine shrimp and blood worm are ideal. Origin Australia, Papua New Guinea; Dority’s rainbowfish is found in Grime River system. Sexing Males will have number of zigzag stripes running through their body. The top half of the body will be less colorful than the bottom half. They will also have extended rays on their first dorsal fins. Females will lack the stripes and are mostly silver in coloration. Breeding Glossolepis dorityi are fairly easy to breed. Add a spawning mop or plants to the tank and reduce the current. The eggs will be laid over a period of months and the spawning mop will need to be moved to another tank for rearing. The fry will be very small; their first feeds should consist of Infusoria. Lifespan The expected life span for Glossolepis dorityi is 7 years. Short description The markings that Dority’s rainbowfish displays are unique to this species of rainbow fish. It prefers to be housed in a heavily planted tank with high water quality. Picture Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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discus fish

Scientific name: Symphysodon aequifasciata alenquer Common name: Discus Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 13 - 15 cm (5.12 - 5.91 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 5.5 - 7.5 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 0 - 8°N (0 - 142.86ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 27 - 30 °C (80.6 - 86°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: South America Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: peaceful Usual place in the tank: Middle levels The discus is described as the king of the aquarium. They are spherical in shape and fairly flat as compared to other cichlids. All species listed exist in different colour variants. Discus fish may be kept on their own in a species tank, or with other docile companions. They should not be kept with fish that have a pugnacious tendency or fast moving fish. The discus requires a large aquarium with efficient filtration, good water quality and frequent water changes. Discus fish generally need a high protein diet including a good quality flake/pellet, bloodworms, brine shrimp, mosquito larvae. Discus should be kept in groups of five or more for their personalities to develop. Discuses are easily bred and may take to spawning after having paired off and matured sexually. They should be provided with a spawning cone. The discus makes a devoted parent and tend to their young. The young feed off secretions from the skin of their parents. ©Stokes(2005) Picture Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk

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Demasons cichlid fish

Scientific name: Pseudotropheus demasoni Common name: Demason’s cichlid Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 4 - 8 cm (1.57 - 3.15 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 8 - 8.9 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 10 - 18°N (178.57 - 321.43ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 22 - 28 °C (71.6 - 82.4°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: aggressive/territorial Temperament toward other fish species: aggressive/territorial Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Food and feeding A low protein diet should be given to Demason’s cichlid with vegetable matter included. Spirulina flake with a variety of cichlid pellets or sticks should provide the staple food. Try to avoid meaty foods as they are full of protein. Origin Africa; Demason’s cichlids are endemic to Lake Malawi. Sexing Although there is no difference in the colouration or markings, the males tend to be more aggressive and bolder than the females. Breeding Demason’s cichlids are mouth brooders and the males can be quite enthusiastic when it comes to breeding time. Provide some flat surfaces in the tank for the spawning areas, flat rocks are ideal. The female will brood the eggs for 2-3 weeks but when the fry are released, they can be fed on cyclopeeze or newly hatched brine shrimp. Lifespan The expected life span for Pseudotropheus demasoni is 8 years. Short description Due to the aggressiveness of Pseudotropheus demasoni, a species tank is the best option. Try to keep the number of males down compared to the females and stock quite heavily compared to other set ups. Because of the large stocking level, a large weekly water change is a must. Picture Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk. Other picture was provided by our contributor.

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Deepwater hap Fish

Scientific name: Placidochromis electra Common name: Deepwater hap Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 10 - 12 cm (3.94 - 4.72 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 7 - 8 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 8 - 20°N (142.86 - 357.14ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 23 - 26 °C (73.4 - 78.8°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: aggressive to smaller Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Origin Africa; Deepwater hap is found in Lake Tanzania. Lifespan The expected life span for Placidochromis electra is 8 years. Short description Always provide a sandy substrate as Deepwater haps will be active all day sifting through it looking for scraps. Provide rock work for hiding places but leave the front of the tank open for swimming spaces. The deepwater hap is a relatively peaceful species compared to other species of the same area so make sure that they are not housed with aggressive species such as mbuna, aulonacara or similar are ideal and will provide harmony in the aquarium. With the larger size of the males these fish should be kept in an aquarium that is capable of holding at least 200-250 litres, larger for a larger group. Food and feeding Deepwater hap is a scavenger and will often look for scraps that the other fish have dropped. It will accept all foods offered, use quality flake, krill and brine shrimp, but feed sparingly to prevent bloat occurring. A varied diet will keep these fish healthier and should bring out the best colouration in the fish. Only feed what the fish can eat in five minutes, any uneaten food will decay and lower the level of water quality in the aquarium. Sexing Males tend to be slightly larger than the females with a dark band running through the eye. It will also display a yellow band on the edge of the dorsal fins. Breeding Placidochromis electra are maternal mouth brooders. The female will collect the eggs into her mouth after they have been fertilised and incubate them. This will last for 2-3 weeks and she will hide and refuse to eat during this. When the fry have been released by the female, they can be fed on newly hatched brine shrimp. It is best to purchase a small group of juveniles to obtain a decent breeding group, males will defend a spawning territory towards other males but this aggression is limited and in many cases it is possible to leave subdominant males in the breeding tank but this should be monitored through the breeding project. Spawning pits are dug into the substrate by the male and he will then display to any females by intensifying his colouration and swimming around the pit. Any females that are ready to spawn will swim to the pit where breeding will take place, once the female has picked up the eggs into her mouth she will then swim the the egg spots at the rear of the male, mistaking them for eggs. The male will then release the sperm into her mouth and fertilisation will take place. Pictures Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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Daffodil Fish

Scientific name: Neolamprologus pulcher Common name: Daffodil Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 7 - 10 cm (2.76 - 3.94 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 7.1 - 8.4 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 8 - 30°N (142.86 - 535.71ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 23 - 26 °C (73.4 - 78.8°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: peaceful Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Food and feeding Use a quality flake or pellets for the staple diet. Daffodils will also greedily consume mysis, krill and brine shrimp. Origin Africa; Daffodils are to be found in Lake Tanganyika. Sexing These can be difficult to sex but the adult males will usually be larger than the females. Breeding A very easy species of fish to breed, they will often use shells as spawning sites and it may not be always apparent that they have bred until the fry emerge. The female will control the parenting but if they spawn again the fry will also be tended by the older juveniles. Lifespan The expected lifespan for Neolamprologus pulcher is 5-6 years. Short description When Neolamprologus pulcher are breeding they can be very aggressive, because of this it is best to keep them in a species only tank. Add plenty of rockwork for hiding places but leave a large open area at the front of the tank for swimming space. Pictures Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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Hecqs shell Fish

Scientific name: Neolamprologus hecqui Common name: Hecq’s shell-dweller Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 8 - 9 cm (3.15 - 3.54 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 7 - 8.4 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 8 - 28°N (142.86 - 500ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 22 - 27 °C (71.6 - 80.6°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: peaceful Temperament toward other fish species: aggressive to smaller Usual place in the tank: Bottom levels Food and feeding Hecq’s shell-dwellers will accept quality flake or pellets but these should not make up their staple diet. Offer on a regular basis meals of live or frozen foods. Origin Africa; Hecq’s shell-dwellers are endemic to Lake Tanganyika. Sexing Mature males are larger than the females, observing the swimming pattern will help as the males will display to the females. Breeding Neolamprologus hecqui are shell brooders so add plenty of large snail shells to the tank to provide spawning sites. Add 3-4 females to one male as they are harem breeders and the male will try to breed with all the females. When spawning is complete the eggs should hatch after 3 days and a few days after this the fry should be free swimming. At this stage the fry should be fed on newly hatched brine shrimp or micro worms. Lifespan The expected life span for Neolamprologus hecqui is 5 years. Short description Hecq’s shell-dwellers like to dig in the substrate so use sand which should be at least 2” deep. Always add more shells to the tank than fish and add rockwork to create hiding places. Picture Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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Haitian cichlid Fish

Scientific name: Nandopsis haitiensis Common name: Haitian cichlid Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 20 - 23 cm (7.87 - 9.06 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 6 - 7.5 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 4 - 16°N (71.43 - 285.71ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 23 - 28 °C (73.4 - 82.4°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Central America Temperament to its own species: aggressive/territorial Temperament toward other fish species: aggressive/territorial Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Food and feeding Haitian cichlids are omnivores and will accept all foods offered. There diet should a varied one and must include some vegetable matter. Origin Found in the rivers and Lakes of Haiti. Sexing Haitian cichlids can be hard fish to sex. The female genitalia is larger than the males and the females tend to be slightly smaller. Sometimes adult males will develop a nuchal hump on the forehead but not always. Breeding Getting these fish to pair is a hard task in itself. Sometimes the male will end up killing the female; the use of a tank divider is recommended in-between spawnings. The eggs will be laid on a flat surface, normally about 150 in a batch. The female will tend the fry for the first couple of months. Lifespan Expected lifespan will average 5 years. Short description Nandopsis haitiensis is a very aggressive cichlid so the tank should be arranged with décor to allow for territories. Any plants added to the tank will be destroyed by these fish. Profile log This page was updated on 28/09/2007. Tiger barb profile can be found here. Picture Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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Green terror cichlid Fish

Scientific name: Aequidens rivulatus Common name: Green terror cichlid Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 15 - 20 cm (5.91 - 7.87 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 6.5 - 7.5 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 4 - 15°N (71.43 - 267.86ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 20 - 24 °C (68 - 75.2°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: South America Temperament to its own species: aggressive/territorial Temperament toward other fish species: aggressive/territorial Usual place in the tank: Middle levels General information about the Green Terror Cichlid The Green Terror Cichlid is quite often mistaken for the Blue Acara as they are closely related and can display a very similar colouration especially when juveniles. Unfortunately the Green Terror Cichlid has a much higher aggression level and will grow larger than the Blue Acara. The minimum sized aquarium to house these fish has to be at least 55 gallons in water volume, they are a very active species and are also high waste producers like most of the larger cichlids. Make sure that the filtration system used is capable of dealing with these high waste levels so it is wise to get one rated for slightly larger aquariums than the one you have to cope with the waste. This fish is an avid digger of the substrate, if adding the Green Terror Cichlid to a planted aquarium, the plants will need to be well weighted down or in pots, only add hardy species of aquatic plants that can stand the odd knock or being moved around. Feeding The Green terror is a cichlid and like most fish of the cichlid species, they eat nearly every kind of food. Use live food including bloodworms, small fish, but feed them vegetables as much as possible. Adults should be fed 1 or 2 times a day. The fry requires food about 4-5 times a day. They are not classed as having a specific feeding level in the aquarium such as bottom feeders or top feeders, they will search for their food in all levels of the water column. Sexing Males are much more coloured than females. Moreover, they are bigger than females. As juveniles their colouration may have a bluer tinge compared to the green tinge of the mature specimens, hence the mistaken identity in some cases with the Blue Acara. Breeding Egg-layers. The female will clean the chosen spawning site in readiness for the eggs and once hatched both parents will protect the eggs and the fry once hatched. If stable, water conditions aren't important at all. What do green terror fertilized eggs look like? They should be transparent. If eggs are white, they haven’t been fertilized or they turned to fungus. The parent fish should attempt to remove any white eggs from the batch. Do green terrors fight when they breed? Answer: Male green terrors are very aggressive towards the females when they are in breeding mode but once they have spawned, they both make good parents. Lifespan Expected lifespan of Green terror cichlid is about 10 years; Depends on conditions heavily. Pictures Thanks to Corey Bower for pictures of Green terror cichlid! Some pictures were bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk. Also thanks to Heather.

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Green chromide Fish

Scientific name: Etroplus suratensis Common name: Green chromide Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 25 - 30 cm (9.84 - 11.81 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 8 - 8.5 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 12 - 26°N (214.29 - 464.29ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 23 - 26 °C (73.4 - 78.8°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: South Asia Temperament to its own species: aggressive/territorial Temperament toward other fish species: aggressive/territorial Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Food and feeding Quality flakes and pellets can provide the staple diet. Vegetable matter should also be given in the form of spinach, peas, and lettuce. Green chromides will also accept treats of blood worms and brine shrimp. Origin Southern India: Green chromides are found in the fresh and brackish water habitats. Sexing There are no visible differences between the sexes. Breeding Green chromides are classed as open water spawners but may use caves as their spawning sites. Normally the eggs will be deposited on a flat rock which has previously been cleaned by the parents. The eggs should hatch after 36 hours and the fry will be free swimming a few days later. The fry can be fed on newly hatched brine shrimp, rotifers or crushed flake. Lifespan The expected life span for Etroplus suratensis is 5-8 years. Short description Etroplus suratensis can tolerate freshwater for short periods of time but prefers brackish conditions. Use fine sand for the substrate and provide hiding places with caves or wood. Open swimming spaces must be provided. Green chromide lives in a brackish water. Even though they are aggressive in small tanks, they are peaceful in big tanks when there are at least 6 of Green chromide fish. Picture Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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Grants peacock cichlid Fish

Scientific name: Aulonocara stuartgranti Common name: Grants peacock cichlid Family: Cichlidae Usual size in fish tanks: 10 - 11 cm (3.94 - 4.33 inch) 0 14 Recommended pH range for the species: 7.4 - 8.4 Recommended water hardness (dGH): 12 - 30°N (214.29 - 535.71ppm) 0°C 32°F 30°C 86°F Recommended temperature: 22 - 26 °C (71.6 - 78.8°F) The way how these fish reproduce: Spawning Where the species comes from: Africa Temperament to its own species: aggressive/territorial Temperament toward other fish species: peaceful Usual place in the tank: Middle levels Food Grants Peacock Cichlids are omnivorous and will accept a variety of live, frozen and dried foods. Be sure to include veggies in their diet to aide in digestion. Sexing The sexual dimorphism in this species is very noticeable in this species. Males exhibit such brilliant colors while females are grayish-brown. The males will have longer fins and “dummy egg spots” on his anal fin which comes in handy while breeding. Breeding This mouth brooding cichlid will clear a spot on a rock to lay eggs. The female takes her brood of approximately 25 eggs into her mouth and picks at “dummy egg spots” located on the male’s anal fin. This causes the male to release sperm which the female will take into her mouth to fertilize the eggs. She will protect her eggs/fry in her mouth for up to 4 weeks during which time she will not eat. It is best to keep her in a private breeding tank so that she does not get picked on by other fish in her weakened state. Lifespan This Peacock Cichlid can live for 12 years or longer, depending on how well it is cared for. Origin Grants Peacock Cichlid is endemic to Lake Malawi in the East African Rift Valley. Short Description There are several color variations of the peacock cichlid occurring in Lake Malawi. The color varieties blend from one to the next as they are found from area to area. These fish are not very demanding of their water conditions and therefore make a great beginner species for aquarists just starting out. Pictures Bought by aqua-fish.net from jjphoto.dk.

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